Climate Change

Biological, Phenological Changes

The following is a list of papers dealing specifically with observed changes in the biology and/or phenology of a wide range of animal and plant species mostly, but also fungi, bacteria and viruses. Every paper is from ISI listed journals and has been through the rigours of peer review. Where access to the full text of each is free I have provided the link. Where a subscription is required I have provided a link to the abstract only. Compiling this list is an ongoing process and I will endeavour to add to it continually.

World Bank (2012), Turn down the heat: Why a 4degrees C warmer world must be avoided.  full report here

Silva, L. C. R., Madhur, A. (2012), Probing for the influence of atmospheric CO2 and climate change on forest ecosystems across biomes. Global Ecology and Biogeography. doi: 10.1111/j.1466-8238.2012.00783.x abstract here

Ahas, R. and Aasa, A. (2006). The effects of climate change on the phenology of selected Estonian plant, bird and fish populations. International Journal of Biometeorology 51, 17-26. abstract here

Ahola, M., Laaksonen, T., Sippola, K., Eeva, T., Rainio, K. and Lehikoinen, E. (2004). Variation in climate warming along the migration route uncouples arrival and breeding dates. Global Change Biology 10, 1610-1617. abstract here

Alheit, J., Möllmann, C., Dutz, J., Kornilovs, G., Loewe, P., Mohrholz, V. and Wasmund, N. (2005). Synchronous ecological regime shifts in the central Baltic and the North Sea in the late 1980s. ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil 62, 1205-1215. abstract here

Amano, T., Smithers, R. J., Sparks, T. H. and Sutherland, W. J. (2010). A 250-year index of first flowering dates and its response to temperature changes. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 277, 2451-2457. abstract here

Bai, F., Sang, W. and Axmacher, J. C. (2011). Forest vegetation responses to climate and environmental change: A case study from Changbai Mountain, NE China. Forest Ecology and Management 262, 2052-2060. abstract charts and tables here

Bartomeus, I., Ascher, J. S., Wagner, D., Danforth, B. N., Colla, S., Kornbluth, S. and Winfree, R. (2011). Climate-associated phenological advances in bee pollinators and bee-pollinated plants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108, 20645-20649. abstract here

Beck, P. S. A., Juday, G. P., Alix, C., Barber, V. A., Winslow, S. E., Sousa, E. E., et al. (2011). Changes in forest productivity across Alaska consistent with biome shift. Ecology Letters, 14(4), 373-379. abstract

Bergamini, A., Ungricht, S., & Hofmann, H. (2009). An elevational shift of cryophilous bryophytes in the last century – an effect of climate warming? Diversity and Distributions, 15(5), 871-879. abstract

Berteaux, D., Réale, D., McAdam, A. G. and Boutin, S. (2004). Keeping Pace with Fast Climate Change: Can Arctic Life Count on Evolution? Integrative and Comparative Biology 44, 140-151. abstract here

Both, C., Bouwhuis, S., Lessells, C. M. and Visser, M. E. (2006). Climate change and population declines in a long-distance migratory bird. Nature 441, 81-83. abstract here

Both, C., Van Turnhout, C. A. M., Bijlsma, R. G., Siepel, H., Van Strien, A. J. and Foppen, R. P. B. (2010). Avian population consequences of climate change are most severe for long-distance migrants in seasonal habitats. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 277, 1259-1266. abstract here

Bradshaw, W. E. and Holzapfel, C. M. (2006). Evolutionary Response to Rapid Climate Change. Science 312, 1477-1478. full text pdf

Brown, J. H., Valone, T. J. and Curtin, C. G. (1997). Reorganization of an arid ecosystem in response to recent climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 94, 9729-9733. abstract here

Brown, J. L., Li, S.-H. and Bhagabati, N. (1999). Long-term trend toward earlier breeding in an American bird: A response to global warming? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 96, 5565-5569. abstract here

Carey, C. (2009). The impacts of climate change on the annual cycles of birds. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364, 3321-3330. abstract here

Chen, I.-C., Hill, J. K., Ohlemüller, R., Roy, D. B., & Thomas, C. D. (2011). Rapid Range Shifts of Species Associated with High Levels of Climate Warming. Science, 333(6045), 1024-1026. abstract

Chiba, S., Aita, M. N., Tadokoro, K., Saino, T., Sugisaki, H. and Nakata, K. (2008). From climate regime shifts to lower-trophic level phenology: Synthesis of recent progress in retrospective studies of the western North Pacific. Progress In Oceanography 77, 112-126. abstract figures tables

Cleland, E. E., Chuine, I., Menzel, A., Mooney, H. A. and Schwartz, M. D. (2007). Shifting plant phenology in response to global change. Trends in ecology & evolution 22, 357-365. abstract figures tables

Coma, R., Ribes, M., Serrano, E., Jiménez, E., Salat, J. and Pascual, J. (2009). Global warming-enhanced stratification and mass mortality events in the Mediterranean. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106, 6176-6181. abstract here

Costello, J. H., Sullivan, B. K. and Gifford, D. J. (2006). A physical–biological interaction underlying variable phenological responses to climate change by coastal zooplankton. Journal of Plankton Research 28, 1099-1105. abstract here

Cotton, P. A. (2003). Avian migration phenology and global climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100, 12219-12222. abstract here

Crick, H. Q. P., Dudley, C., Glue, D. E., & Thomson, D. L. (1997). UK birds are laying eggs earlier. Nature, 388(6642), 526-526. full text

Croxall, J. P., Trathan, P. N. and Murphy, E. J. (2002). Environmental Change and Antarctic Seabird Populations. Science 297, 1510-1514. abstract here

Daufresne, M., Roger, M. C., Capra, H. and Lamouroux, N. (2004). Long-term changes within the invertebrate and fish communities of the Upper Rhône River: effects of climatic factors. Global Change Biology 10, 124-140. abstract here

Dieker, P., Drees, C. and Assmann, T. (2011). Two high-mountain burnet moth species (Lepidoptera, Zygaenidae) react differently to the global change drivers climate and land-use. Biological Conservation 144, 2810-2818. abstract here

Dunnell, K. L. and Travers, S. E. (2011). Shifts in the flowering phenology of the northern Great Plains: Patterns over 100 years. American Journal of Botany 98, 935-945. abstract here

Fodrie, F. J., Heck, K. L., Powers, S. P., Graham, W. M., & Robinson, K. L. (2010). Climate-related, decadal-scale assemblage changes of seagrass-associated fishes in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Global Change Biology, 16(1), 48-59. abstract

Gange, A. C., Gange, E. G., Mohammad, A. B. and Boddy, L. (2011). Host shifts in fungi caused by climate change? Fungal Ecology 4, 184-190. abstract here

Gardner, J. L., Heinsohn, R. and Joseph, L. (2009). Shifting latitudinal clines in avian body size correlate with global warming in Australian passerines. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 276, 3845-3852. abstract here

Walther, G. (2003). Plants in a warmer world. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 6, 169-185. abstract here

Graham, N. A. J., Wilson, S. K., Jennings, S., Polunin, N. V. C., Bijoux, J. P. and Robinson, J. (2006). Dynamic fragility of oceanic coral reef ecosystems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103, 8425-8429. abstract here

Grégory, B. (2009). Decadal changes in climate and ecosystems in the North Atlantic Ocean and adjacent seas. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 56, 656-673. abstract here

Gworek, J. R., Vander Wall, S. B. and Brussard, P. F. (2007). Changes in biotic interactions and climate determine recruitment of Jeffrey pine along an elevation gradient. Forest Ecology and Management 239, 57-68. abstract here

Hagen, S. B., Jepsen, J. U., Yoccoz, N. G. and Ims, R. A. (2008). Anisotropic patterned population synchrony in climatic gradients indicates nonlinear climatic forcing. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 275, 1509-1515. abstract

Helm, B. (2009). Geographically distinct reproductive schedules in a changing world: Costly implications in captive Stonechats. Integrative and Comparative Biology 49, 563-579. full text

Hickling, R., Roy, D. B., Hill, J. K., Fox, R., & Thomas, C. D. (2006). The distributions of a wide range of taxonomic groups are expanding polewards. Global Change Biology, 12(3), 450-455. abstract

Hill, J. K., Thomas, C. D., Fox, R., Telfer, M. G., Willis, S. G., Asher, J. and Huntley, B. (2002). Responses of butterflies to twentieth century climate warming: implications for future ranges. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences 269, 2163-2171. abstract

Hulme, P. E. (2011). Contrasting impacts of climate-driven flowering phenology on changes in alien and native plant species distributions. New Phytologist, 189(1), 272-281. full text

Hüppop, O. and ppop, K. H. (2003). North Atlantic Oscillation and timing of spring migration in birds. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences 270, 233-240. abstract

Husby, A., Kruuk, L. E. B. and Visser, M. E. (2009). Decline in the frequency and benefits of multiple brooding in great tits as a consequence of a changing environment. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 276, 1845-1854. abstract

Ingrid, K. (2011). Changes in Dogger Bank macrofauna communities in the 20th century caused by fishing and climate. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 94, 234-245. abstract

Inouye, D. W., Barr, B., Armitage, K. B. and Inouye, B. D. (2000). Climate change is affecting altitudinal migrants and hibernating species. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 97, 1630-1633. full text

Jenouvrier, S., Weimerskirch, H., Barbraud, C., Park, Y.-H. and Cazelles, B. (2005). Evidence of a shift in the cyclicity of Antarctic seabird dynamics linked to climate. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 272, 887-895. full text

Johnson, C. R., Banks, S. C., Barrett, N. S., Cazassus, F., Dunstan, P. K., Edgar, G. J., Frusher, S. D., Gardner, C., Haddon, M., Helidoniotis, F., Hill, K. L., Holbrook, N. J., Hosie, G. W., Last, P. R., Ling, S. D., Melbourne-Thomas, J., Miller, K., Pecl, G. T., Richardson, A. J., Ridgway, K. R., Rintoul, S. R., Ritz, D. A., Ross, D. J., Sanderson, J. C., Shepherd, S. A., Slotwinski, A., Swadling, K. M. and Taw, N. (2011). Climate change cascades: Shifts in oceanography, species’ ranges and subtidal marine community dynamics in eastern Tasmania. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 400, 17-32. abstract

Jump, A. and Penuelas, J. (2005). Running to stand still: adaptation and the response of plants to rapid climate change. Ecology Letters 8, 1010-1020. full text

Jump, A. S., Mátyás, C. and Peñuelas, J. (2009). The altitude-for-latitude disparity in the range retractions of woody species. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 24, 694-701. abstract

Kamenos, N. A. (2010). North Atlantic summers have warmed more than winters since 1353, and the response of marine zooplankton. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107, 22442-22447. abstract

Kauserud, H., Heegaard, E., Semenov, M. A., Boddy, L., Halvorsen, R., Stige, L. C., Sparks, T. H., Gange, A. C. and Stenseth, N. C. (2010). Climate change and spring-fruiting fungi. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 277, 1169-1177. full text

Kauserud, H., Stige, L. C., Vik, J. O., Økland, R. H., Høiland, K. and Stenseth, N. C. (2008). Mushroom fruiting and climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105, 3811-3814. full text

Kutz, S. J., Hoberg, E. P., Nagy, J., Polley, L., & Elkin, B. (2004). “Emerging” Parasitic Infections in Arctic Ungulates. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 44(2), 109-118. abstract

Lambert, A. M., Miller-Rushing, A. J. and Inouye, D. W. (2010). Changes in snowmelt date and summer precipitation affect the flowering phenology of Erythronium grandiflorum (glacier lily; Liliaceae). American Journal of Botany 97, 1431-1437. full text

Le Roux, P. C. and McGeoch, M. A. (2008). Rapid range expansion and community reorganization in response to warming. Global Change Biology 14, 2950-2962. abstract

Leech, D. I., & Crick, H. Q. P. (2007). Influence of climate change on the abundance, distribution and phenology of woodland bird species in temperate regions. Ibis, 149, 128-145. full text

Lenoir, J., Gégout, J. C., Marquet, P. A., de Ruffray, P. and Brisse, H. (2008). A Significant Upward Shift in Plant Species Optimum Elevation During the 20th Century. Science 320, 1768-1771. abstract

Lesica, P. and McCune, B. (2004). Decline of arctic-alpine plants at the southern margin of their range following a decade of climatic warming. Journal of Vegetation Science 15, 679-690. abstract

Lesley, H. (2000). Biological consequences of global warming: is the signal already apparent? Trends in Ecology & Evolution 15, 56-61. abstract

Lindner, M., Maroschek, M., Netherer, S., Kremer, A., Barbati, A., Garcia-Gonzalo, J., Seidl, R., Delzon, S., Corona, P., Kolström, M., Lexer, M. J. and Marchetti, M. (2010). Climate change impacts, adaptive capacity, and vulnerability of European forest ecosystems. Forest Ecology and Management 259, 698-709. full text

Ludwig, G. X., Alatalo, R. V., Helle, P., Lindén, H., Lindström, J. and Siitari, H. (2006). Short- and long-term population dynamical consequences of asymmetric climate change in black grouse. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 273, 2009-2016. abstract

Madin, E. M. P., Ban, N. C., Doubleday, Z. A., Holmes, T. H., Pecl, G. T. and Smith, F. (2012). Socio-economic and management implications of range-shifting species in marine systems. Global Environmental Change 22, 137-146. full text

Maggini, R., Lehmann, A., Kéry, M., Schmid, H., Beniston, M., Jenni, L. and Zbinden, N. (2011). Are Swiss birds tracking climate change?: Detecting elevational shifts using response curve shapes. Ecological Modelling 222, 21-32. abstract

Marcel, E. V., Adriaensen, F., van Balen, J. H., Blondel, J., Dhondt, A. A., van Dongen, S., Chris, d. F., Ivankina, E. V., Kerimov, A. B., de Laet, J., Matthysen, E., McCleery, R., Orell, M. and Thomson, D. L. (2003). Variable responses to large-scale climate change in European Parus populations. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences 270, 367-372. full text

Mazaris, A. D., Kallimanis, A. S., Sgardelis, S. P. and Pantis, J. D. (2008). Do long-term changes in sea surface temperature at the breeding areas affect the breeding dates and reproduction performance of Mediterranean loggerhead turtles? Implications for climate change. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 367, 219-226. abstract

Menendez, R. (2007). How are insects responding to global warming? Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 150, 11. full text

Menzel, A., Sparks, T. H., Estrella, N., Koch, E., Aasa, A., Ahas, R., Alm-KÜBler, K., Bissolli, P., BraslavskÁ, O. G., Briede, A., Chmielewski, F. M., Crepinsek, Z., Curnel, Y., Dahl, Å., Defila, C., Donnelly, A., Filella, Y., Jatczak, K., MÅGe, F., Mestre, A., Nordli, Ø., PeÑUelas, J., Pirinen, P., RemiŠOvÁ, V., Scheifinger, H., Striz, M., Susnik, A., Van Vliet, A. J. H., Wielgolaski, F.-E., Zach, S. and Zust, A. N. A. (2006). European phenological response to climate change matches the warming pattern. Global Change Biology 12, 1969-1976. abstract

Miller-Rushing, A. J. and Inouye, D. W. (2009). Variation in the impact of climate change on flowering phenology and abundance: An examination of two pairs of closely related wildflower species. American Journal of Botany 96, 1821-1829. full text

Miller-Rushing, A. J., Katsuki, T., Primack, R. B., Ishii, Y., Lee, S. D. and Higuchi, H. (2007). Impact of global warming on a group of related species and their hybrids: cherry tree (Rosaceae) flowering at Mt. Takao, Japan. American Journal of Botany 94, 1470-1478. full text

Møller, A. P. (2011). When climate change affects where birds sing. Behavioral Ecology 22, 212-217. abstract

Moraal, L. G. and Jagers op Akkerhuis, G. A. J. M. (2011). Changing patterns in insect pests on trees in The Netherlands since 1946 in relation to human induced habitat changes and climate factors—An analysis of historical data. Forest Ecology and Management 261, 50-61. abstract

Moritz, C., Patton, J. L., Conroy, C. J., Parra, J. L., White, G. C. and Beissinger, S. R. (2008). Impact of a Century of Climate Change on Small-Mammal Communities in Yosemite National Park, USA. Science 322, 261-264. abstract

Nussey, D. H., Postma, E., Gienapp, P. and Visser, M. E. (2005). Selection on Heritable Phenotypic Plasticity in a Wild Bird Population. Science 310, 304-306. abstract

Opdam, P. and Wascher, D. (2004). Climate change meets habitat fragmentation: linking landscape and biogeographical scale levels in research and conservation. Biological Conservation 117, 285-297. abstract

Ozgul, A., Tuljapurkar, S., Benton, T. G., Pemberton, J. M., Clutton-Brock, T. H. and Coulson, T. (2009). The Dynamics of Phenotypic Change and the Shrinking Sheep of St. Kilda. Science 325, 464-467. abstract

Parker, B. R., Vinebrooke, R. D. and Schindler, D. W. (2008). Recent climate extremes alter alpine lake ecosystems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105, 12927-12931. full text

Parmesan, C. (2006). Ecological and Evolutionary Responses to Recent Climate Change. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 37, 637-669. abstract

Parmesan, C. and Yohe, G. (2003). A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems. Nature 421, 6. full text

Pauli, H., Gottfried, M., Reiter, K., Klettner, C. and Grabherr, G. (2007). Signals of range expansions and contractions of vascular plants in the high Alps: observations (1994–2004) at the GLORIA* master site Schrankogel, Tyrol, Austria. Global Change Biology 13, 147-156. abstract

Penuelas, J. and Boada, M. (2003). A global change-induced biome shift in the Montseny mountains (NE Spain). Global Change Biology 9, 131-140. abstract

Philippart, C. J. M., Anadón, R., Danovaro, R., Dippner, J. W., Drinkwater, K. F., Hawkins, S. J., Oguz, T., O’Sullivan, G. and Reid, P. C. (2011). Impacts of climate change on European marine ecosystems: Observations, expectations and indicators. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 400, 52-69. abstract

Phillimore, A. B., Hadfield, J. D., Jones, O. R. and Smithers, R. J. (2010). Differences in spawning date between populations of common frog reveal local adaptation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107, 8292-8297. full text

Pörtner, H. O. and Peck, M. A. (2011). TEMPERATURE | Effects of Climate Change. In P. F. Editor-in-Chief: Anthony (ed) Encyclopedia of Fish Physiology. San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 1738-1745.

Post, E., Forchhammer, M. C., Bret-Harte, M. S., Callaghan, T. V., Christensen, T. R., Elberling, B., Fox, A. D., Gilg, O., Hik, D. S., Høye, T. T., Ims, R. A., Jeppesen, E., Klein, D. R., Madsen, J., McGuire, A. D., Rysgaard, S., Schindler, D. E., Stirling, I., Tamstorf, M. P., Tyler, N. J. C., van der Wal, R., Welker, J., Wookey, P. A., Schmidt, N. M. and Aastrup, P. (2009). Ecological Dynamics Across the Arctic Associated with Recent Climate Change. Science 325, 1355-1358. abstract

Primack, D., Imbres, C., Primack, R. B., Miller-Rushing, A. J. and Del Tredici, P. (2004). Herbarium specimens demonstrate earlier flowering times in response to warming in Boston. American Journal of Botany 91, 1260-1264. full text

Primack, R. B., Higuchi, H. and Miller-Rushing, A. J. (2009). The impact of climate change on cherry trees and other species in Japan. Biological Conservation 142, 1943-1949. abstract

Purse, B. V., Mellor, P. S., Rogers, D. J., Samuel, A. R., Mertens, P. P. C. and Baylis, M. (2005). Climate change and the recent emergence of bluetongue in Europe. Nat Rev Micro 3, 171-181. abstract

Réale, D., McAdam, A. G., Boutin, S. and Berteaux, D. (2003). Genetic and plastic responses of a northern mammal to climate change. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences 270, 591-596. full text

Richardson, A. J. (2008). In hot water: zooplankton and climate change. ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil 65, 279-295. abstract

Rijnsdorp, A. D., Peck, M. A., Engelhard, G. H., Möllmann, C. and Pinnegar, J. K. (2009). Resolving the effect of climate change on fish populations. ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil 66, 1570-1583. abstract

Roessig, J. M., Woodley, C. M., Cech, J. J. and Hansen, L. J. (2004). Effects of global climate change on marine and estuarine fishes and fisheries. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 14, 251-275. full text

Round, P. D., & Gale, G. A. (2008). Changes in the Status of Lophura Pheasants in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand: A Response to Warming Climate? Biotropica, 40(2), 225-230. first page

Saino, N., Ambrosini, R., Rubolini, D., von Hardenberg, J., Provenzale, A., Hüppop, K., Hüppop, O., Lehikoinen, A., Lehikoinen, E., Rainio, K., Romano, M. and Sokolov, L. (2011). Climate warming, ecological mismatch at arrival and population decline in migratory birds. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 278, 835-842. abstract

Schneider, S. H., Roost, T. and Mastrandrea, P. R. (2007). Climate Change and Wild Species. In A. L. Editor-in-Chief:   Simon (ed) Encyclopedia of Biodiversity. New York: Elsevier, pp. 1-26.

Senapathi, D., Nicoll, M. A. C., Teplitsky, C., Jones, C. G. and Norris, K. (2011). Climate change and the risks associated with delayed breeding in a tropical wild bird population. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 278, 3184-3190. abstract

Sheriff, M. J., Kenagy, G. J., Richter, M., Lee, T., Tøien, Ø., Kohl, F., Buck, C. L. and Barnes, B. M. (2011). Phenological variation in annual timing of hibernation and breeding in nearby populations of Arctic ground squirrels. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 278, 2369-2375. abstract

Shimoda, Y., Azim, M. E., Perhar, G., Ramin, M., Kenney, M. A., Sadraddini, S., Gudimov, A. and Arhonditsis, G. B. (2011). Our current understanding of lake ecosystem response to climate change: What have we really learned from the north temperate deep lakes? Journal of Great Lakes Research 37, 173-193. abstract

Sinervo, B., Méndez-de-la-Cruz, F., Miles, D. B., Heulin, B., Bastiaans, E., Villagrán-Santa Cruz, M., Lara-Resendiz, R., Martínez-Méndez, N., Calderón-Espinosa, M. L., Meza-Lázaro, R. N., Gadsden, H., Avila, L. J., Morando, M., De la Riva, I. J., Sepulveda, P. V., Rocha, C. F. D., Ibargüengoytía, N., Puntriano, C. A., Massot, M., Lepetz, V., Oksanen, T. A., Chapple, D. G., Bauer, A. M., Branch, W. R., Clobert, J. and Sites, J. W. (2010). Erosion of Lizard Diversity by Climate Change and Altered Thermal Niches. Science 328, 894-899. abstract

Spottiswoode, C. N., Tøttrup, A. P. and Coppack, T. (2006). Sexual selection predicts advancement of avian spring migration in response to climate change. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 273, 3023-3029. full text

Stenseth, N. C. and Mysterud, A. (2002). Climate, changing phenology, and other life history traits: Nonlinearity and match–mismatch to the environment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99, 13379-13381. abstract

Stuart L, P. (2008). Biodiversity: Climate Change or Habitat Loss — Which Will Kill More Species? Current Biology 18, R117-R119. abstract

Telemeco, R., S., Elphick, M., J. and Shine, R. (2009). Nesting lizards (Bassiana duperreyi) compensate partly, but not completely, for climate change. Ecology 90, 17-25 full text

Thomas, C. D., Franco, A. M. A. and Hill, J. K. (2006). Range retractions and extinction in the face of climate warming. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 21, 415-416. abstract

Todd, B. D., Scott, D. E., Pechmann, J. H. K. and Gibbons, J. W. (2011). Climate change correlates with rapid delays and advancements in reproductive timing in an amphibian community. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 278, 2191-2197. abstract

van Hal, R., Smits, K. and Rijnsdorp, A. D. (2010). How climate warming impacts the distribution and abundance of two small flatfish species in the North Sea. Journal of Sea Research 64, 76-84. abstract

Van Grunsven, R. H. A., Van Der Putten, W. H., Martijn Bezemer, T., Berendse, F., & Veenendaal, E. M. (2010). Plant–soil interactions in the expansion and native range of a poleward shifting plant species. Global Change Biology, 16(1), 380-385. abstract

Walther, G.-R. (2010). Community and ecosystem responses to recent climate change. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 365, 2019-2024. full text

Wernberg, T., Russell, B. D., Moore, P. J., Ling, S. D., Smale, D. A., Campbell, A., Coleman, M. A., Steinberg, P. D., Kendrick, G. A. and Connell, S. D. (2011). Impacts of climate change in a global hotspot for temperate marine biodiversity and ocean warming. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 400, 7-16. abstract

Willis, C. G., Ruhfel, B., Primack, R. B., Miller-Rushing, A. J. and Davis, C. C. (2008). Phylogenetic patterns of species loss in Thoreau’s woods are driven by climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105, 17029-17033. abstract

Wilson, R. J., Gutiérrez, D., Gutiérrez, J., Martínez, D., Agudo, R. and Monserrat, V. J. (2005). Changes to the elevational limits and extent of species ranges associated with climate change. Ecology Letters 8, 1138-1146. abstract

Wiltshire, K. H. and Manly, B. F. J. (2004). The warming trend at Helgoland Roads, North Sea: phytoplankton response. Helgoland Marine Research 58, 269-273. abstract

Winder, M. and Schindler, D. E. (2004). Climate change uncouples trophic interactions in an aquatic ecosystem. Ecology 85, 2100-2106. abstract

Wolfe, D. W., Schwartz, M. D., Lakso, A. N., Otsuki, Y., Pool, R. M. and Shaulis, N. J. (2005). Climate change and shifts in spring phenology of three horticultural woody perennials in northeastern USA. International Journal of Biometeorology 49, 303-309. abstract

Altermatt, F. (2010). Climatic warming increases voltinism in European butterflies and moths. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 277(1685), 1281-1287. abstract

Bradley, N. L., Leopold, A. C., Ross, J., & Huffaker, W. (1999). Phenological changes reflect climate change in Wisconsin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 96(17), 9701-9704. abstract

Fitter, A. H., & Fitter, R. S. R. (2002). Rapid Changes in Flowering Time in British Plants. Science, 296(5573), 1689-1691. abstract

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